APPLICATION OF LE-CHETLIER’S PRINCIPLE

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APPLICATION OF LE-CHETLIER’S PRINCIPLE

1. HARBER’S PROCESS:

 

Introduction:

On large scale Ammonia gas is prepared by Harber’s process in which nitrogen and hydrogen are mixed in a ratio of l:3. Since the process is reversible therefore Le-Chetliers principle could be applied to get maximum product of ammonia gas. The reaction is shown below:

2H2 + 3H2 ———–> 2NH3 ∆H = -46.2 Kg/Mol

i. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION:

In order to increase the production of ammonia, the concentration of nitrogen and hydrogen gases are increased so that reaction move in forward direction that is according to the statement of Le-Chetlier’s principle.

 

ii. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE:

Since the given reaction is exothermic in forward direction therefore in order to gain maximum quantity of Ammonia gas the temperature is reduced as much as possible to precede the reaction in forward direction.

The least optimum temperature for this reaction is 450-5oo ºC

iii. EFFECT OF PRESSURE:

In order to increase the production of ammonia by variation in pressure, the pressure is increased so that according Le-Chetlier’s principle reaction move in forward direction to increase the quantity of ammonia produced.

The least optimum pressure for this reaction is 400-1000 atm.

 

2. CONTACT PROCESS:

INTRODUCTION:

In industrial level sulphuric acid is prepared by contact process. This process consists of four, steps among which the formation of sulphuric trioxide is a reversible process, Therefore in order to maximize the production of sulphuric acid, SO3 should be produced maximum.

2SO2 + O2 <==> 2SO3 ∆H = -395 KJ / mole.

i. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION:

In order to increase the production of SO; the concentration of SO2 and O2 increased so that the reaction move in forward direction that is according to the statement of Le-Chetlier’s principle.

ii. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE:

Since the given reaction is exothermic in forward direction therefore in order to gain maximum quantity of S03 we decrease the temperature as much as possible according to the statement of Le-Chetlier’s principle to die ct reaction in forward direction. The least possible reaction is 45O”C.

 

iii. EFFECT OF PRESSURE:

In order to increase the production of S03 by variation in pressure, we increase the pressure so that according Le-Chetlier’s principle reaction move in forward direction to increase the quantity of sulphur trioxide. A catalyst such as V205 is also added to speed up the reaction.

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