Channels of communication may be divided into the following parts.
- Internal communication
- Horizontal/ Crosswise communication
- Downward communication
- Upward communication
- External Communication
- 1. Internal communication:
When communication flows from one person or part to the other within and organization it is called internal communication. It is intra-company communication. Through this type of communication manager leads, guide, directs, motivate, counsels, inform his subordinates. Internal communication has the following channels or kinds.
- Horizontal/Crosswise Communication:
It is communication that flows between personnel in one department and personnel of equal, lower, or superior in other department. It facilities subordinates to keep their superiors informed of their interdepartmental activities. It improves the equality of coordination.
- Downward Communication:
When communication flows from superior to subordinates it is referred to as downward communication. In this channel instruction, guidelines, orders, advice, and information are given to subordinate. Manager motivates guides, advises, and informs his subordinates. Boss subordinate relationship is improved.
- Upward Communication:
When communication flows from subordinates to superior, it is referred to as upward communication. It includes daily reports, sales reports explanations, reviews, summaries, statements, and comments. By this medium lower staff keeps their superiors informed of the progress. Appeals, requests, problems, difficulties are communicated. Guidance, advice, and help are sought by the subordinates.
2. External Communication:
It is inter-company communication. Well worded letters, reports, and proposals improve business relations. Oral communication is also used. Disgruntled customers are satisfied. New customers are discovered.