CHAPTER 12- AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

by • 14/07/2011 • 9th class ChemistryComments (1)1101

Q1) Difference between organic compound and inorganic compound.
ans)                             organic compound inorganic compound

1) carbon is essential constituent of organic compound. 1) presence of carbon is not essential but it is present in carbonates, bicarbonates and cynamids.
2) carbon and hydrogen are involved in their preparation. 2) carbon and hydrogen may not even be present.
3) usually they decompose at high temperature in the simple compound. 3) usually they are stable at high temperature.
4) most organic compound readily catch fire. 4) most inorganic compound do not catch fire.
5) their melting and boiling point are low. 5) their melting and boiling point are usually high.
6) organic compound contain covalent bond . 6) ionic bond are frequently in inorganic compound.
7) their molecular mass is very high. 7) molecular mass are usually low.
8) these are usually soluble in organic solvant. 8) these are insoluble in inorganic solvant.

 

Q2) write the structure of methane and its chemical properties?
ans) methane structure:- the carbon atom has four electron in tis valence shell. in molecule of methane it shares these with four hydrogen atom forming four covalent bond.

each of the four covalent bond consist of a shaired pairs of electron abviously these shared pair of electron are negatively charged so they tendto repel cach other and move as far as possible the maximum seperation of the bond is achieved in a regular tetrahedral structure with the carbon atom at the center and four hydrogen atom at the apice the angle between any two C-H bond is the same about 109.5c.
chemical properties
combustion:- methane is an important fuel and its most important chemical property is that it burns in air on oxygen with a non-luminous flame. the burning of methane in air or oxygen is an exothermic reaction during which carbondioxide water and heat energy are produced.
reaction with helogens:- methane react with chlorine in presence of sunlight in such a way that the four hydrogen atom of methane are replaced one by one in a step wise manner.

 

Q3) write the process of fractional ditrillation of pertroleum?
ans) various fraction are seperated according to the difference in their boiling points and put to various uses. this method is known as fractional distrillation and compries as evaporation and condensation.
the pretroleum to be refined is first heated in a special furnacecalled pipe still about 371-426c. the presence in the pipe is so adusted as to avoid evaporation of the crude oil. the hot pretroleum from the pipe still then goses to bottom of a fractionating tower. here the pressure is released and the liquid vaporazies. the vapour go up the fractionating tower where hydrocarbon that have high boiling temperature range are easily condensed to liquid in the lower part of the tower the fraction like gasoline which lower boiling temperature range continue to move up the tower as vapours which are them led to condenser where they change to liquid state.

 

Q4) write difference between drugs and medicine and write important drugs and their abuses?

ans) defination of drugs:- a drugs is defined as a substance which affect most of the physiological function of a man or an animal.
definetion of medicine:- a medicine is defined as any drugs prescribed by a physisicn for the treatment of an ailment of a patient.
important drugs and their abuses:- drugs (intoxicants) can be put into four groups.
1) sleeming drugs:- the drugs like alcohol,barbitroat and trannquilizes are incleded in this group their continue use damages the will power and memory of a person continous use of alcohol can permenantly damage the heart,liver and brain.
2) stimulants:- drugs like cocaine,nicotine,caffeine,amphetamine are inculded in this group. due to the use of such drugs the energy of the body begins to be used up rapidly their use increases the normal heart  beat and blood pressure.
3) narcotics:- drugs like heroin codine and opium are inculded in this group the common action in these drugs on the nervous system is that it make it quite dull and brain control of bodies organs is lost. feeling of hunger is lost and one suffer from constipation.

4) hallucinogens:- this includes charas, bhang and marijuana. in this case,the effect is so dengrous that the addict loses his balance of mind his nerves get so much weak that his loses all his thinking and the capacity of understanding.

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One Response to CHAPTER 12- AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

  1. asharib says:

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