Q1) Define solubility what are the factors which can affect solubility?
Ans: Solubility:-“The solubility of a solute in a solvent at a particular temperature is the number of grams of solute necessary of saturate 100g of the solvent at that temperature.”
Factore of solubility
1)Temperature:-it is often observed solubility of many solute the solution generally increases in temperature for example, the solubility of potassium mitrate increases with temperatures the solubility of some solute decreases with the increase in temperature such solute generally heat when dissolved in water for example, calcium oxide is less soluble in hot water than in the cold state.
gases are also more soluble in cold solvent than in hot solvent.
2) Pressure:-Solubility of gases increases with the increase in pressure . carbon di oxide in filled in soda water bottles pressure.
3) Nature of the solute and the solvent:-The solubility of polar compound is more in polar solvent and that of non-polar solvent in non-polar solvent.
Q2) Define molarity?
Ans: Molarity:-Molarity is a measure of the concentration of solution. it is denoted by “M”.”it is define as the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution(not solvent)”.
M= number of mole of solute
volume of solvent in dm3(L)
Q3) What are electrolysis and non-electrolysis also give example of strong and weak electrolysis?
Ans: Electrolysis: The substance which allow electricity to pass through their solution and are chemical decompose are called “electrolysis.”
Non-electrolysis:-” These substances which do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water and do not induct electricity are known as non-electrolysis.”
Strong electrolysis:-Those electrolysis which are highly dissociated and can conduct large current are known as “strong electrolysis”.
example: HCl, NaOH
Weak electrolysis:Those electrolysis which are poorly dissociated and can conduct poor current are known as” weak electrolysis”.
example: acetic acid, mercuric chloride
Q4)Define electrolysis? explain the prosis of electrolysis of copper chloride solution?
Ans: Electrolysis: The movement of ion of an electrolyte and their deposition as neutral species at the electrodes under the influence of electric current is known as “electrolysis”.
The electrolysis of aqueous copper chloride: When aqueous copper chloride is electrolyzed between carbon electrodes copper is deposited at the cathode(negative electrode) & chlorine is given at the anode(positive electrode).
Aqueous copper chloride contain copper ion and chloride ion. The copper ion behind positively charged move towards the cathode and the chloride ion behind negatively move towards the anode. The copper ion take up electrons from the cathode and deposit copper on it.
Reaction at cathode: Cu++(aq)+2e-Cu(s)
Reaction at anode: 2Cl-(aq)Cl2 + 2e-
Q5) Define saturated, unsaturated and super saturated?
Ans: Saturated: A saturated solution is the solution which contains maximum amount of solute that it can dissolve at a particular temperature.
Unsaturated: An unsaturated solution is one which contains less amount of solute that it can held at a particular temperature.
Super saturated: A super solution is one which contains more solute that it can theorically be held by the solvent at a particular temperature
Q6) What do you mean by hard water and soft water?
Ans: Soft water:-Water which produces lather with soap easily and do not produce insoluble curdy precipitate is called soft water.
Hard water:-Water which produces insoluble curdy precipitate with soap and lather is not easily formed is called hard water.
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CHAPTER 5- THE PERIODIC TABLE