Hybridization

by • 22/08/2013 • GeneralComments (0)689

Hybridization:

A phenomenon in which orbitals of any atom with different shape, size energy and bond angle are mixed together before overlapping to form same number of new orbitals with came shape, size, energy and bond angle is called “Hybridization”, while the new orbitals are called “Hybridization orbitals”.

Types of Hybridization

 

1. SP³ Hybridization:

A hybridization in which one‘s’ and three ‘p’ (Px, Py, Pz) orbitals of any atom are mixed together before overlapping to form 4 new orbitals with same shape, size, energy and bond angle (‘lO9.5°) is called Sp3 hybridization, while the newly form orbitals are called Sp3 hybridization orbitals.

 

Example: (Methane)

The molecular formula of methane is CH4_ in methane, one‘s‘and three ‘p’ (Px, Py, Pz) orbitals of carbon atom are going through the process of Sp; hybridization before overlapping to form 4 new orbitals with same shape, size, energy and bond angle (109_28). These new orbitals are known as Sp3 hybridized orbitals as shown below;

Now all for Sp3 hybridized orbitals overlap with ‘s’ orbitals of hydrogen to form 4 sigma bonds. The structure of methane is called “tetrahedral” structure as shown below:

2. SP² Hybridization

A hybridization in which one ‘s’ and two ‘p’ (Px, Py, Pz) orbitals of any atom are mixed together before overlapping to form 3 new orbitals with same shape, size, energy and bond angle (120°) is called Sp² hybridization, the newly form orbitals are known as Sp² hybridization orbitals.

 

Example: (Ethene)

The molecular formula of ethane is C2l-l4. in ethene, carbons used their one   and two ‘p‘ orbitals and going through the process of Sp² so that 3 new orbitals formed on both carbons each having same shape, size, energy and bond angle (120º) called Sp² hybridized orbitals as shown below:

Now both carbons from sigma bond due to overlapping between their Sp² orbitals. The remaining two Sp²orbitals on each carbon overlap; with‘s’ orbitals of hydrogen atom to form another 4 sigma bonds. The hybridized Pz orbitals of both carbons finally overlap side ways to form a π – bond as shown in the figure. The structure of ethane is called “ trigonal structure”.

 

3. Sp Hybridization:

When one‘s’ and one ‘p’ (Px or Py or Pz) of any atom are mixed together before overlapping to form two new orbitals with same shape, size, energy and bond angle (180) then the hybridization is known as Sp hybridization while the new orbitals are called “ Sp hybridized orbitals”.

 

Example: (Ethyne)
 

In ethyne whose molecular formula is CZHQ, both carbons use their one ‘s’ and one ‘p’ orbitals to going through the process of Sp hybridization before overlapping to form 2 new orbitals with same shape, size, energy and bond angle called Sp hybridized orbital as shown below:

Now there is an overlapping between Sp orbital of both carbons to form a sigma bond. The remaining one Sp orbital an each carbon overlaps with ‘s’ orbitals of hydrogen atoms to form two more sigma bonds.

 

Since Py and Pz orbitals are unhybridized and present on both carbons, therefore, they involve in side ways overlapping with one another to form two Pi bonds as shown in the figure. The structure of ethyne is a “Linear structure”

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