Agricultural Sector has great importance in Pakistan because the economy of Pakistan is based on agriculture. Allah Almighty has blessed Pakistan with fertile lands where we are growing almost all types of crops. Wheat, Rice and Cotton are the export crops of Pakistan.
We are importing pulses and oil seeds from different countries, as production is very low of these two crops. Here we discuss in detail the important crops of Pakistan.
Crops Seasons of Pakistan:
1. Rabi Crops Season:
The Summer Crop Season is called the Rabi Crops Season.
2. Kharif Crops Season:
The Winter Crop Season is called the Kharif Crops Season.
Kinds of Crops:
1. Food Crops: The crops which are generally part of our food are called the food crops such as wheat, rice and sugarcane.
2. Cash Crops: The crops which are generally not part of our food but when we export these crops we earn foreign exchange. These are called cash crops such as cotton and sugarcane.
Important Crops of Pakistan:
1. Wheat: It is the most important food crop of Pakistan. It is grown in large quantity in Pakistan. We are self-sufficient in the production of wheat and now we are also exporting wheat and earning foreign exchange.
About 90% of the wheat of Pakistan is grown in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab.
2. Rice: Rice is also one of the important food crop of Pakistan and is largely grown in Pakistan. We are self-sufficient in the production of rice and we are also exporting it in large quantity. Specially basmati rice of Pakistan has great demand in foreign countries.
It is grown in many areas of Pakistan. In Punjab it is cultivated in Sialkot, Wazirabad, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, district Gujrat, Sargodha, Faisalabad and Kasure. In Sindh, Jacobabad, Larkana, Badin, Thatta, Shikarpur and Dadu district are important in rice cultivation. District Nasirabad and Baluchistan is also a rice producing area.
3. Cotton: Cotton is the biggest export of Pakistan and a cash crop of Pakistan.
Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of cotton and now we are exporting cotton to foreign countries and earning foreign exchange.
Cotton is cultivated in many areas of Pakistan specially Punjab and Sindh are well known as the home of Cotton.
4. Sorghum and Millets (Jowar and Bajara): It is generally not used as food, it is a part of feed of animals.
Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of Sorghum and millets, but we do not export them. And for our needs. It is because they are not a part of our food.
Sorghum and millets (jawar and bajra) are mostly grown in Attock, Gujrat, Sialkot and Sargodha district of Punjab, Tharparker and Mirpur Khas district of Sindh.
5. Pulses: Pulses are one of the main food crop of our country. It is commonly used in our day to day life.
Pakistan is importing 20% of the total pulses to fulfill its requirements. It means we are nearly self-sufficient in the production of Pulses.
6. Oil Seeds: Oil seeds are also a very important crop of Pakistan. It is mainly grown in areas where there is abundance of water.
As far production of oil seeds is concerned, it is not for our needs. Pakistan imports 80% oil seeds from other countries. In this way there is a great loss to economy of our country. So government of Pakistan must take some necessary steps to increase its production.
Areas where oil seeds are grown are Punjab and Sindh.
7. Sugarcane: Sugarcane is the crop from which sugar is produced. It is very important cash crop of Pakistan. Large quantity of water is needed for its growth.
Our country is self-sufficient in the production of sugar cane and these days we are also exporting sugar and earning foreign exchange.
The province of NWFP is called “The home of Sugarcane”. It is grown in some parts of Sindh also.
8. Maize: (Corn) Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of corn but it is not of good quality. So, we utilize it for our own needs rather exporting it.
It is mainly found in all areas of our country. Mardan, Abbottabad, Peshawar, Swat (NWFP), Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Sahiwal districts (Punjab) are known for the growth of corn.
Conclusion: Pakistan is an agricultural country and there are many lands in Pakistan, which are fertile that’s why all types of crops are growth in Pakistan. Wheat, rice and cotton are the major crops of our country. Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of these crops. We export these to different countries and earn a lot of foreign exchange. Cotton is the biggest export of Pakistan. As far as the production of pulses and oil seeds is concerned, it is not upto the mark, more than 20% of our needs, we import from different countries by spending foreign exchange. Oil seed production is lowest in Pakistan as compare to the other crops due to the lack of water. So more than 80% of our needs are fulfilled by importing palm-oil from different countries and in this way, we are spending a lot of foreign exchange on the import of palm-oil. Oil seed production must be increased in Pakistan to save foreign exchange. Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of sugarcane and now are exporting sugar to different countries and earning foreign exchange.