Local Flora and Fauna of Pakistan
Local Flora of Pakistan
Simply meaning plant life. Different kinds of plants found in a particular area which constitute its flora.
All groups of plants are present in Pakistan. Although all types of plants are important in their own way, forests are especially conspicuous. Forests and forestry are considered the backbone of our economy. Forests regulate supply of water in rivers by blocking its free flow, especially during heavy rains, so forests control floods.
They prevent loss of top soil by holding it with their roots. Forests prevent formation of deserts, water logging and control the amount of salt in soil. Plants supply Oxygen and clean the air. They provide shelter and food to wild life they are integral part of Ecosystem. Some of the economically important flowering and non flowering plants of Pakistan are discussed as follows:
i. Flora Found on High Altitude:
The high mountains in the North and North Western part of Pakistan have sufficient snow fall and low temperature. The mountains have thick forests. These forests have trees like Blue pine, Chalghoza pine, Deodar, Junipers, Fir, Oak and Olives etc.
ii. Flora Found on Deserts:
Forests of desert plants are situated in the area where there is less rain fall and inadequate supply of water. These forests have plants like Acacias.
iii. Flora Found on Irrigated Lands:
Like Changa Manga, these provide trees of Sheesham, Mulberry, Willow, Poplar, Neem etc which provide wood for furniture, sports goods and fuel. They are also responsible to regulate the temperature of the atmosphere and provide habitat for our wild life.
iv. Flora Found on Plains:
In the plains many crops are cultivated for nutritional and other requirements. These plants include wheat, Maize, Rice, Sugar Cane, Sugar beet, Pea, Potato, Tomato, Onion, Garlic, Chilli, Turnip, Radish, Carrot, Cauliflower and many Cereal grains and Cotton etc.
v. Flora Constituted Fruits:
Pakistan is also rich in Fruit trees such as Mangoes, Apples, Oranges, Apricots, Peaches, Bananas, Walnuts and Almonds etc.
vi. Flora Consists of Ornamental Plants:
Many plants are cultivated for ornamental purposes. These include Chyrsanthemum, Roses, Jasmines etc.
vii. Flora for Fodder:
The hills and plains of Pakistan possess different kind of grasses which provide fodder for grazing animals.
viii. Flora of Fresh Water and Marine:
A large number of plants are present in fresh water ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers of Pakistan such as Hydrilla, Typha and many different kinds of Algae etc.
Similarly many plants and algae are found in Oceans and Coastal region of Pakistani.e Sea weeds, Ulva etc.
The above mentioned flora is also very important because they provide the following:
i. Some plants provide food.
ii. Many plants are important for medicinal values.
iii. Some plants form thick forests which supply timber.
iv. Some flora is cultivated for ornamental purpose.
Local Fauna of Pakistan
Simply meaning of Animal life. Different types of animals found in a particular region which constitute its fauna.
Different groups of animals are found in different areas of Pakistan. Each one of these groups holds an important position in its biological relationship with plants and with human beings.