Some common diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria

by • 13/04/2012 • New Pattern Biology NotesComments (0)884

Some common diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria:

(1)        Tuberculosis:

It is the most wide spread disease in under-developed countries of the world.

Causative organism:

Tuberculosis is caused by rod-shaped bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Sources of Infection:

(i)                  The sources of infection in man are milk from infected cattle and man himself.

(ii)                Human sputum is the main source of infection.

(iii)               It can be spread from infected to healthy one either through the air borne droplets resulting from coughing or sneezing or food handled by person suffering from tuberculosis.

(iv)              Persons living under poor hygienic conditions such as bad housing, poor food and over work.

(v)                All these factors weaken our body defence mechanism.


Symptoms of Tuberculosis:

(i)      Prolonged coughing followed by fatigue and constant fever.

(ii)    Loss of weight with pains in chest are the chief symptoms.


Precautionary measures (Control):

(i)      A very useful preventive measure is the health education of the public.

(ii)    Rest, fresh air, peace of mind, sufficient sleep and well regulated balanced diet can restore health in case of mild infections.

(iii)   Isolation of patient in hospitals and sanitoria can control the spread of disease.

(iv)  Vaccination of BCG use of antibiotics, surgery of lungs is effective in controlling the disease.


(2)        Cholera:

Causative organism:

Cholera is caused by a comma shaped bacterium called “Vibrio Cholera”. The vibrio has tail or flagella which makes it actively mobile.

Sources of infection:

(i)                  Flies play role in this connection. They contaminate the food with cholera germs brough by them from wastes of cholera patient.

(ii)                If the faces contaminate water and food drinking and eating, their bacterium can get into another persons body and cause cholera.


Symptoms of cholera:

(i)                  Disease begins with fever, diarrhea and vomiting and serves abdominal pain.

(ii)                Severe attacks lead to rapid dehydration of the body and death of the patient with in a few days.


Precautionary measures (Control):

(i)                  This disease can be controlled by active immunization of the population by vaccination with cholera vaccine.

(ii)                Good sanitation is required to prevent the contamination of water and food.

(iii)               In take of water in which glucose and salts have been mixed.


(3)        Typhoid:

It is the most wide spread in all part of the world. It is acute infections disease, particularly in the developing countries.

Causative Organism:

Typhoid is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typosa.

Sources of infection:

The sources of infection in man is the germs of this disease enter the intestine of human body along with food and water.


Symptoms of Typhoid:

Patients suffer from continued high fever, headache, and the inflammation of the intestine.


Precautionary measures (Control):

(i)                  Protection against contamination of food and drink.

(ii)                Typhoid vaccine is to be used to create active immunity in the individual is very rare.


(4)        Bacillary dysentery:

Causative organism:

Bacillary dysentery is caused by bacterium of the genus shigella.


Sources of infection:

The bacteria enters the body with contaminated food, dirty fingers, faces and flies.


Symptoms of Bacillary dysentery:

(i)                  Patient suffers from diarrhea.

(ii)                The stool contains blood, mucus and pus.

(iii)               Some time patient gets fever.


Precautionary measures (Control):

(i)                  Disease can be effectively controlled by protecting cooked and uncooked food from house flies.

(ii)                Careful washing of hands after using toilet.

(iii)               Such persons should not be allowed to handle food or work in restaurants.


(5)        Tetanus:

This species is found all over the world.


Causative organism:

Tetanus is caused by spore forming bacteria called Clostridium tetanus.


Sources of infection:

The bacteria enter the body through wounds, burns, umbilical stumps of a new born baby, surgical suture and other injuries.


Symptoms of tetanus:

(i)                  Bacteria producing toxin which affects the central nervous system and produce painful contractions of the body muscles.

(ii)                When muscles of the jaw are affected the mouth cannot be opened.

(iii)               The patient is said to have lock jaw.

(iv)              Death results from respiratory failure.


Precautionary measures (Control):

(i)                  Pencillin is given to stop the growth of the bacteria and the production of toxin.

(ii)                Immunizing people with a vaccine which stimulate, the body to produce antitoxin.


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