Structure of CH4 (Methane):
The NH structure shows that central atom is N is surrounded by four electron pairs
1. In terms of electron pair repulsion theory, the tetrahedral is the only shape which givesthe maximum repulsion (similar to that o F CH4). But in NH3, N has a lone pair of e which repels the other bonding orbitals due to which bond angle is reduced to 107° to 109°.
2. In terms of hybrid orbital molecule, N unlikeness, only three of the four sp3 hybrid orbitals to form s – sp1 hybrid sigma bonds with three hydrogen atoms at having a non – bonding orbitals on the N.
The electrons in the non — bonding orbitals are associated only one molecule (i el of N) while other bonding electrons are held together lightly by two nuclei of N and H due to the reason, the non — bonding orbitals occupies a large values compressor the bonding orbitals making the angle in NH to 107° to 109°.
Shape of H2O2
i. According to Lewis electron, the central atom of oxygen is surrounded by the four active states of electrons.
ii. According to Electron Repulsion Theory, the tetrahedral =s structure gives the minimum repulsion. But in the structure, bond angle is 104.5°. this is due to the reason that there are two lone – pair which repels the bonding pairs wit the result that angle is reduced for 109° to 104.5°.
iii. In terms of hybrid orbitals theory, oxygen makes Spa hybridization. Oxygen takes two of its sp3 hybrid orbitals, its form single sigma bond with two hydrogen atoms. Remaining two are non – bonding electron pair occupy large volumes of space, they compress the bonding orbitals and reduces the angle between H and O in to 104.5°.