Agricultural Developments from 1947 to 2008

by • 25/03/2012 • Pak Studies In EnglishComments (0)623


Introduction:     Pakistan is an agricultural country. Most of the people here are engaged in this occupation. Agriculture is the largest segment of Pakistan’s economy. It contributes 26% Gross Domestic Product, account for half of employed labour and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings.

Crop Seasons:



Main Crops


April – June


October – December

Cotton, rice, sugarcane, maize


October – December


April – May

Wheat, grain, tobacco, mustard


Percentage Involved:    Out of our working class 52% (70% in rural areas) earn their lively hood from this field.

Main Exports:    Cash crops exported, earn foreign exchange of about 45%. Cotton and rice are the main exports. Cotton, Cloth, Sugar, Vegetable Oil industries get raw material from agriculture.


Main Crops:        A variety of crops are cultivated in Pakistan throughout the year.


1)            Rabi Crops:         These crops are sown before winter and harvested in early summer. They include wheat, barley, grains, oil seeds etc.


2)            Kharif Crops:      These crops are sown in the beginning of summer and harvested in early winter. They include rice, sugarcane, millets, maize, cotton etc.


Food Crops

1.            Wheat: It is the most important food crop of our country. It provides food to the majority of our population. The production of wheat has increased considerably due to the introduction of agricultural sciences. The production of wheat 2004-2005 has been 20,386 tons approximately.


2.            Rice:      It is the second most important crop of Pakistan. It is an importance source of foreign exchange. It fetched Rs. 12.56 billion in exchange during the year 2004-2005.


3.            Maize:  Maize is an important food grain as well as raw material for edible oil production.


Cash Crops

1.            Cotton:                 Cotton the silver fiber of Pakistan is the most important cash crop of Pakistan. Japan, China, Russia, Bahrain are the best buyers of our cotton.


2.            Sugarcane:          Sugarcane is one of the largest industries in Pakistan and is the 2nd largest cash crop. There are 32 sugar mills operating these days. Pakistan achieved self-sufficiency in sugar throughout the 1980’s and 90’s.


3.            Tobacco:              Pakistan is meeting all domestic demands and is exporting a sizable amount of cigarettes.

4.            Oil Seeds:           The main crops grown for oil and mustard seeds, sunflower, and soya beans. The major source of domestic oil is cotton –seed a byproduct of cotton and not an oil seed crop.


Problem Faced:                Agriculture is the mainstay of our economy, accounting for 26% of GDP and provides employment to 52% of labour force and contributes 45% of export earnings.

The agricultural sector faces following problems:

  1. Scarcity of irrigation water.
  2. No or low agricultural research.
  3. No farmer welfare.
  4. Lack of infrastructure.
  5. Water logging and salinity.
  6. Lack of agro-based industries.
  7. Need of credit.
  8. Floods.
  9. Under-utilization of cultivable land.
  10. Lace of training.


Measures Taken:             Since our economy is basically agricultural and we have been trying to explore ways to increase our agricultural yield. Some steps are hinted out:

  1. Improvement of irrigation system.
  2. Land reforms.
  3. Government land distributed in peasants.
  4. Introduction of mechanical methods.
  5. Credit facilities.
  6. Provision of fertilizers, seeds and pesticides etc.
  7. Agricultural education emphasized.
  8. Other measures include training through TV, Radio, Newspaper etc.


Conclusion:        Realizing the importance of the agriculture sector in the economy, the government has announced a comprehensive package of incentive to spur its growth.

  1. The package inter – alia includes increase in the support prices of various crops namely wheat, rice and sugarcane, relief in the prices of ___ agricultural inputs.
  2. Improved availability of agricultural credit, better irrigation and drainage facilities.
  3. Measures to check the adulteration of fertilizer, pesticides and seeds.
  4. Promotion of livestock.
  5. Agricultural research and increase in production of wheat and oil seeds. This is expected to reduce the country’s dependence on food imports.
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