Chapter 10 – Audit of Various Organization

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Textile Mill

Auditor should give special attention to the following points while auditing the Textile Mill.

A textile mill is a concern where cloth is knit with the help of thread.

In any Textile Mill the cotton is the basic material. Trend is prepared from cotton. Then the thread is rolled on cones. These are used in knitting the clothes. In a textile mill there are many departments as spinning department, dying department, printing department and etc.

Books of Accounts

The following are the main books, which are used to textile mills.

  • Sales Books
  • Sales Return Book
  • Petty Cash Book
  • Salary Books
  • Stock Register
  • Purchase Book
  • Purchase Return Book
  • Journey Day Book etc

Special Points

The following are the special points, which are used to audit in the textile mills.

1. Internal Control

The auditor can examine the internal control of the mills. If internal control is effective the auditor can easily complete his work of accounted. In case of unaffected control. There is difficulty in the completion of work of an auditor.

2. Raw Material

The auditor can examine in different ways, the all material that is purchased and consumed. The auditor can check the ledger of the material to verify that the figures are fact or not.

3. Fixed Assets

The auditor can also ask the management for the fixed assets. The date is different for purchase the assets. The purchase and sale of the assets is also possible. The auditor has to find out the actual value of the assets.

4. Expense of Purchase

The expenses, which are related to the purchases are added in he material cost. So, the auditor has to check that either these expense are related with the purchase or the nature of the business or not.

5. Closing Stock

The auditor during his audit has an authority to ask for the closing certificates so that the actual value of the closing stock can be find out. He can also physically, examine the store or the place where the stock is kept.

6. Written Down Stock

The auditor has to check also that the stock is in its full reality and the damaged material is also recorded at its minimum sale price.

7. Cash

The auditor should also check the cash in hand and in office. The cashier is responsible for the shortage of cash balance.

8. Depreciation

The auditor has to check that the depreciation is correctly charged. The depreciation is charged on the fixed assets for the prescribe rate. The principle of consistency must also be followed.

9. Prepaid Expense

The auditor has also be noted that the expense which are paid in advance are properly recorded in the books of accounts. The current year expense are actual expense but remaining will be treated as the assets in the balance sheet.

10. Outstanding Expense

The auditor can also check the outstanding expense. He can also check that the management has treated the outstanding expense properly and according to the rules and regulations.

11. Balance in Bank

The auditor can also check the balance in bank. He can get the statement from the bank. The bank reconciliation statement can also be prepared to find errors and frauds.

12. Valuation of Assets

The auditor can also check that the assets are to be valued as per law. The management usually fixes the valuation. If assets, which are circulating and price of fixed assets are their cost price. The auditor in this way can judge that either the management has determined the cost value accordingly by or not.

13. Plant and Machinery

The auditor can also receive the schedule of plant and machinery. The auditor has to check that either the plant or machinery is in safe hands and used for the business purpose only. The auditor has also to check the purchase and sale procedure of the plant and machinery.

14. Verification

The auditor has an authority to check the goods personally to verify that the goods which exits in the balance sheet are also present in the store. Moreover he can also verify the assets personally.

15. Vouching

The auditor can also vouch the transaction relating to the receipt and payment of the cash. The term vouching is usually concern with the comparison of the entries with the vouching.

16. Cotton Purchase

The auditor should take the proper care in checking the inward documents. He should examine the purchase quality and price and also that the purchases are according to the need.

17. Sales

The auditor should also take care about the sale. The sale may be of the thread yarn, or also fabrics. If the goods are exporting, the auditor should also take care for it.

18. Sales Tax

The auditor has to check also that the company has correctly recorded the amount of sale tax and that the sale tax is paid properly.

19. Export Quota

The textile mills are provided the allocated export quota. The auditor has to check that the company has operated within the export limits or not.

20. Financial Charges

In our country, the textile mills are usually, provided the borrowing facilities from the bank. The auditor has to check that either the interest or mark up etc is paid or classified properly or not.

21. Provision for Tax

The auditor should also take care about provision of tax. He can take help from the tax advisor of the company.

22. Foreign Exchange Earning

The auditor has to check the utilization of foreign exchange earning for business will be acquired into any possible misuse will be prepared to the qualified.

23. Excise Duty

The payment was properly made and any aversion to be qualified production schedule prepared in an explanatory manner.

24. Sale of Scrap

The auditor should see that the sale of the scrap is properly maintained or not.

25. Wages and Salaries

The auditor has also to check that the wages or salaries are properly paid to the workers or not and verify them.

Sugar Mill

The auditor should keep in mind the following points while auditing the accounts of a sugar mill or company.

Books of Accounts

The following are the main books of accounts, which are used in the industries.

  • Day Book
  • Sales Book
  • Journal Ledger
  • Purchase Book
  • Sales Return
  • Purchase Return
  • Cash Book
  • Petty Cash
  • Stock Register
  • Form Register

Special Points

1. Internal Control

The auditor has to check the internal control system of the mill. If the internal control system is properly maintained the auditor can easily fulfill his work. On the other hand he has to work greatly.

2. Purchases

The auditor has to check the purchases, which are made by the management. The sugarcane is the main product, which is purchased for the industry. There is need to be checked the auditor all the detail about the purchase to know the nature of the purchases

3. Cash Balance

The auditor can also examine the cash balance in the office and can also note the usage of petty cash book.

4. Sales

The auditor can also examine the sales of the mills from the sales ledgers. Usually the main item of sales is the sugar but the molasses candies chipboard and also the mills management sells the wine.

5. Vouching

The auditor can verify the entries with the actual vouching. This is done to check the accuracy of the accounts.

6. Loans

The auditor has to check also either the management of sugar mill has provided loan to the sugarcane suppliers. And if so then the loan either is adjusted against the payment to cultivators. The auditor has also an authority to check the vouchers for loan.

7. Depreciation

The auditor can also vouch the depreciation on the fixed assets. Their rates and also the way of calculating the depreciation. The depreciation is charged the same rate from year to year.

8. Carriages of Railway

The auditor can also examine the expenses, which are to paid or still payable to the railway company.

9. Farming

Sometimes, the sugar mills may have their own agriculture farms. In this case the auditor can check and verify the income and expense of that farms.

10. Prepaid Expense

The auditor has to check also the expense, which is paid in advance by the management. The auditor has to verify that either these expenses are paid accordingly or not.

11. Unpaid Expense

The auditor has to check also if there are some unpaid expenses. The auditor should be pointed out that the adjusted entries are made and the amount can be verified from the financial statement.

12. Accrued Income

The auditor has to see if there is some accrued income. He can vouch the income statement and balance sheet for this purpose.

13. Unearned Income

The auditor can also point out the income, which is not earn still. For this purpose he can check the financial statements. The account books are also helpful for this purpose.

14. Costing

The auditor can also check the totals, sub totals, cost and carry forward of the balances. It is done to check that the figures are fact and according to the documents.

15. Research and Developments

Some sugar mills have better development and research on the seeds and plantation of the sugarcane. The scientist discovers new types of the seeds and also the better varieties of sugar cane. The auditor checks and verifies that expense and their adjustment.

16. Sales of By Product

The molasses is the main by product of the sugar cane. The auditor can check and verify the sale and its treatment in the accounts.

17. Seasonal Workers

A sugar mill operates on seasonal basis. Only in the seasonal period workers are employed. The auditor can check the record for attendance etc.

18. Fair Price Shop

In usually the sugar mills have the fair shops. In these shops the sugar is sold at the subsides rate. The auditor checks the sale of the year and stock at the end of the year.

19. Excise Duty

First of all it will be checked where these sales were understand. The auditor can evasion of excise duty on the part of the management is discovered.

20. Exports

The auditor can point out if there are some exports. He can be judged them by the valid letter of credit.

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