Q.2. Describe the characteristics, nature and features of motivation.
Characteristics Or Features of Motivation
Some important features of motivation may be brought out as follows:
1. Personal and Internal Feeling
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which is generated within an individual in the form of an energetic force that drives him to behave or not to behave in certain ways. These are some environmental and other forces that trigger these drives.
2. Art of Stimulating Someone Or Oneself
A manager can use motivation to inspire not only his subordinates, but to motivate himself also. For self-motivation, he has to take following steps
- He should set a goal for himself and should not close sight of it.
- He should supplement his long term objectives with short-term goals.
- He should learn a challenging task every year.
- He should make his job a different one with a view to improving objectives for his position and increasing his productivity.
- He should develop an area of expertise by building on his strengths and developing his weaknesses into strengths.
- He should give himself the feedback and reward himself by celebrating his accomplishment.
3. Produces Goal – Directed Behavior
Motivation is closely intertwined with behavior. As a Behavioral concept, it directs human behavior toward certain goals.
4. Motivation can be either Positive or Negative
Positive motivation is also known as Carrot Approach and includes use of additional pays, incentives, praise possibility of becoming a permanent employee etc. Negative motivation is also called Stick Approach and implies punishment, such as reprimands, threat of demotion, threat of termination, etc.
5. The Central Problem of Motivation is HOW
Motivation is necessary for successful achievement of goals. However, it is a complex process because different employees have different needs, their motives are varied and needs and motivates change from time to time. Moreover, motivation is partly logical and partly emotional. Further, people satisfy their needs in many different ways. Hence, the central problem of motivation is how to inspire such a typical group of individuals towards attainment of goals in a concerned manner.
6. Motivation is System Oriented
Motivation is the result of interplay among three sets of different factors:
- Influences operating within an individual, for example, his needs, tensions, motives, values, goals etc.
- Influences operating within the organization for example, its structure, technology, physical facilities, various processes, the nature of job, advancement avenues etc.
- Forces operating in the external environment, for example, society is culture, norms, values, customs, government policy regarding the business of the enterprise etc.
7. Motivation is a Sort of Bargaining
Inducements from the side of the enterprise and contributions from the side of the employees.
8. Motivation is different from Satisfaction
Motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want or goal. Satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is fulfilled. In other words, motivation implies a drive toward an outcome and satisfaction is the outcome already experienced.