Computer Acronyms

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Computer Acronyms


1. 1GL: 1t Generation Language

Machine language (Software)


2. 2GL: 2nd Generation Language

Assembler and other low-level languages (Software)


3. 3GL: 3rd Generation Language

High level programming languages (Software)


4. 4GL: 4th Generation Language

Database access languages (Software)


5. 5GL: 5th Generation Language

Artificial intelligence languages (Software)


6. AAC: Advanced Audio Coding


7. AAC: Authorization and Access Control



8. AAF: Advanced Authoring Format


9. ABI: Application Binary Interface

Defines the binary system interface between compiled applications and the operating system on which they run (Software)


10. ABIOS: Advanced Basic Input Output System


11. ABR: Available Bit Rate

One of five ATM Forum defined service types. Supports variable bit rate data traffic with flow control, a minimum guaranteed data transmission rate and specified performance parameters (Communication)

12. ABS: Auto Balance System

System to reduce vibration and noise in a peripheral (Hardware)


13. ABS: Automatic Backup System


14. ACE: Access Control Encryption


15. ACL: Access Control List

For granting or denying access to computer resources (security) (Operating systems)


16. ACL: Advanced Cmos Logic


17. ACPI: Advanced Configuration and Power Interface



18. ACR: Advanced Communication Riser



19. ACROSS: Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System


20. ADO: Activex Data Object

(Databases) (Microsoft)


21. ADODB: Activex Data Object Data Base

(Databases) (Microsoft)


22. ADS: Active Directory Service

Windows 2000 network objects database that stores each specific network item in a central database and that may be replicated (Operating systems) (Microsoft)


23. ADS: Advanced Digital System


24. AIM: Aol Instant Messenger


25. ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit

Device in a CPU performing arithmetic operations (Hardware)


26. AMD: Advanced Micro Devices

CPU Manufacturer (AMD)


27. AMP: Audio Modem Riser

Slot for an internal modem (Hardware)


28. ANSI: American National Standard Institute

An organization that reviews and approves product standards in theUnited States. (Organizations)


29. API: Application Programming Interface

A set of calling conventions defining how a service is invoked through a software package. (Software)


30. APN: Access Point Name

Used on GPRS as access information



31. APR: Advanced Port Replicator



32. APS: Automatic Protection Switching

A mean for automatically detecting and signaling a transmission link failure (Communication)


33. ARIS: Architecture of Integrated Information Systems


34. ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

A packet switched network developed in the early 1970s. The ‘grandfather” of today’s Internet. ARPANET was decommissioned in June 1990.


35. AS/400: Application System/400



36. ASAP: Automatic Switching and Processing


37. ASCII:

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

The standard binary encoding of alphabetical characters, numbers, and other keyboard symbols (7 bit character code.)


38. ASP: Active Server Pages

Dynamic web pages engine (Software) (Microsoft)


39. ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode

A standard for switching and routing all types of digital information, including video, voice, and data. With ATM, digital information is broken up into standard-sized packets, each with the “address” of its final destination. (Communication)


40. AVI: Audio Video Interleaved File Format


41. AVSEQ: Audio Video Sequence

Multimedia file format, probably compatible with the MPEG-1 Format


42. BASIC: Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

Programming language (Software)


43. BAT: Batch

File name extension


44. BCL: Base Class Library

(Software) (Microsoft)


45. BD: Blu-ray Disc

Name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by thirteen leading consumer electronics and pc companies (Hardware)


46. BI: Business Intelligence

47. BIOS: Basic Input/Output System

The program a personal computer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on


48. BIT: Binary digit


49. BLOB: Binary Large Object

(Data bases)


50. BSRAM: Burst Static Random Access Memory



51. CAB: Compressed Application Binary



52. CAD: Computer-Aided Design

Use of computer graphics technology to design electronic and mechanical parts and machinery.


53. CAM: Computer-Aided Manufacturing


54. CASE: Computer-Aided Software Engineering


55. CAT: Computer-Aided Testing


56. CAVE: Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment


57. CBIOS: Compatibility Basic Input Output System


58. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access



59. CD-R: Compact Disk Recordable



60. CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read Only Memory

A form of storage characterized by high capacity (roughly 600 megabytes) and the use of loser optics rather than magnetic means for reading data. (Hardware)


61. CD-RW: Compact Disk-Rewriteable



62. CD-WO: Compact Disk – Write Once


63. CGA: Color Graphics Adapter

Video specification for a resolution of 320×200 pixels in 16 colors (Hardware)


64. CGI: Common Gateway Interface

A common method for transferring information between a web server and a back-end application (Network)


65. CIS: Contact Image Sensor

Scanner device (Hardware)


66. CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computer

CPU architecture (Hardware)


67. CLI: Command Line Interface


68. CLOB: Character Large Object



69. CLP: Cell Loss Priority

In ATM cells, a bit that specifies whether a cell can be discarded, if necessary: for example if network congestion or policing occurs (Communication)


70. CLR: Common Language Runtime

(Software) (Microsoft)


71. CLSID: Class Identifier



72. COBOL: Common Business-Oriented Language

Programming language (Software)


73. CODEC: Coder, Decoder


74. CPI: Clock per Instruction


75. CPL: Combined Programming Language


76. CPU: Central Processing Unit

The part of the computer in which calculations and manipulations take place. (Hardware)


77. CRT: Cathode Ray Tube

The CRT operates by firing an electron beam that strikes the inside of the monitor’s display surface, which is coated with phosphor. The phosphor glows briefly when excited by the beam. (Hardware)


78. CSS: Cascading Style Sheets


79. CU: Control Unit (Hardware)


80. CVGA: Color Video Graphics Array


81. DAC: Digital to Analog Converter

An electronic device used to convert discrete digital numbers to continuous analog signals. In contrast with Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). (Hardware)


82. Daemon: Disk And Execution Monitor

(Operating systems)


83. DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

TheU.S.government agency that funded the ARPANET. (Organizations)


84. DAT: Disk Array Technology


85. DSA: Database Administrator

The person (or team) responsible for maintaining the databases (Databases)


86. DDBMS: Distributed Database Management System

(Data bases)


87. DDR: Double Data Rate

Memory access architecture that supports data transfers on both edges of each clock cycle, which doubles the memory chip’s data throughput. DDR also consumes less power which makes it well suited for use with notebook computers (Hardware)


88. DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

A system that assigns different IP addresses to devices each time they connect to the network. DHCP can support a mix of static and dynamic lP addresses (Network)

89. DHTML: Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language


90. DICE: Dynamic Internet Configuration Environment


91. DIMM: Dual In line Memory Module



92. Divx: Digital Video express



93. DNS: Domain Name System

The process that tronslates Internet domain names (such as into IP addresses (Network)


94. DOMAIN: Distributed Operating Multi Access Interactive Network


95. DOS: Disk Operating System

(Operating systems)


9e. DPS: Digital Pixel Sensor



97. DQL: Data Query Language


98. DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory

A type of semiconductor random-access memory that stores information in integrated circuits that contain capacitors. Because capacitors lose their charge over time, the dynamic RAM must be periodically ‘refreshed” or recharged. (Hardware)


98. DSN: Data Source Name

(Data bases)


100. DSO: Data Source Object



101. DTCP: Digital Transmission Content Protection


102. DVD: Digital Video (or Versatile) Disk



103. EDI: Electronic Data Interchange


104. EFS: Encrypting File System

(Operating systems)


105. EGA: Enhanced Graphics Adapter

Video specification for a resolution of 640×3.50 pixels in 16 colors (Hardware)


10. EMF: Electromagnetic Field


107. EPOS: Electronic Point Of Sale

Electronic cash registers and their software used in stores


108. EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

A non-volatile memory chip that is programmed after they it is manufactured. EPROM5 differ from PROMs in that they can be erased (generally by exposing the semiconductor material to the ultraviolet light) and can be reprogrammed after having been erased. (Hardware)


109. EVGA: Extended Video Graphics Array


110. EXE: Executable

File name extension


111. FAT: File Allocation Table

(Operating systems) (Microsoft)


112. FAT32: File Allocation Table 32 bits

Every entry in the table is 32 bits wide (Operating systems) (Microsoft)


113. FAX: Facsimile

Also a tile name extension


114. FDD: Floppy Disk Drive



115. FORTRAN: Formula TRANsactor

Programming language


1l6. FRC: Frame Rate Control



117. FTP: File Transfer Protocol

The Internet protocol (and program) used to transfer files between hosts. (Network)


118. GAN: Global Area Network



119. GPRS: General Packet Radio Service



120. GPS: Global Positioning System


121. QSM: Global System for Mobile communications



122. GUI: Graphical User Interface

The pictorial point of interaction between you and the computer and its special applications, usually with a mouse or other selection device. (Operating systems)


123. HDD: Hard Disk Drive



124. HD-DVD: High Definition Digital Video (or Versatile) Disk



125. HDLC: High-level Data-Link Control

A generic link-level communications protocol developed by the International Standards Organization. HDLC manages synchronous, code- transparent, serial information transfer over a link connection (Communication)


126. H DTV: High- Definition Television


127. HID: Human Interface Device



128. HTML: Hypertext Markup Language

A file format, based on SGML, for hypertext documents on the Internet. It is simple and enables the embedding of images, sounds, video streams, form fields, and basic text formatting.


129. HTTP: HyperText Transport (or Transfer) Protocol

The Internet protocol that fetches hypertext objects from remote hosts. It is based on TCP/IP.


130. IAS: Internet Access Server



131. ICQ: I Seek You

Communication program (Software)


132. IDE: Integrated Development Environment



133. INS: INput String


134. INTEL: INTegrated Electronics



135. IRC: Internet Relay Chat

13k. IRQ: Interrupt ReQuest

A signal that a device requires CPU attention (Hardware)


137. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network

A communication technology offered by telephone carriers worldwide. ISDN combines voice and digital network services in a single medium, offering customers digital data services and voice connections through a single wire (Communication)


138. ISP: Internet Service Provider

Communications service company that provides Internet access and services to its customers. ISPs range in size from small independents serving a local calling area to large, established telecommunications companies (Network)


139. JIT: Just In Time

Programs compilation technique (Software)


140. JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group

A joint venture of the CCITT and ISO that developed a standard for compressing gray-scale or color still images.


141. JPG: Joint Photographic experts Group

Filename extension (short for JPEG)


142. JRE: Java Runtime Environment



143. kbps: Kilobits Per Second

Transfer Speed (Communication)


144. KIPS: Kilo Instruction per Second

Processing speed


145. KVM: Keyboard. Video, Mouse



146. LAN: Local Area Network

Data communications network connecting computers and related equipment, usually over an area not greater than 10 km (Network)


147. LASER: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation


148. LCD: Liquid Crystal Display



149. LCID: Language Code Identifier


150. LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

A standardized TCP/IP protocol for access to a central X.500-based directory that is shared by many different services. Many vendors plan to use LDAP to access policy information stored on third-party directories (Network)


151. LED: Light Emitting Diode



152. LNP: Local Number Portability



153. LOB: Large Object

(Data bases)


154. LOOPS: Lisp Object Oriented Programming System


155. LOV: List Of Values


156. MAC: Multiple Access Computers


157. MB: MegaByte

1024 kilobytes


158. Mbps: MegaBits Per Second

Transfer speed (Communication)


159. MCU: MicroController Unit


160. MDBMS: Multidimensional DataBase Management System



161. MICR: Magnetic Ink Character Recognition


162. MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface

A note-oriented control language for specifying

music.MIDIdata consists of codes specifying notes and timing. These codes can be generated by or output to MIDI-compatible devices, such as keyboards or synthesizers (Hardware)


163. MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions



164. MIPS: Million Instructions Per Second

A unit of measure of execution speed that rates the performance of a computer CPU


165. MIS: Management Information System


166. MOB: Memory-Order Buffer


167. MODEM: Modulator Demodulator


168. MP3: MPeg layer 3

Sound encoding format (Software)


169. MPEG: Moving Picture Experts Group

A group that has developed standards for compressing moving pictures and audio data and for synchronizing video and audio data streams. Also, a file format


170. MUP: Multiple Unc Provider



171. MVC: Model View Controller


172. NAC: Network Adapter Card


173. NF$: Network File System

A Sun distributed file system that provides transparent access to remote file systems on heterogeneous networks (Operating systems) (Sun)


174. NIC: Network Interface Card



175. NID: Network Interface Device



176. NLT: Natural Language Technology



177. NNTP: Network News Transport Protocol



178. NT: New Technology

(Operating systems) (Microsoft)


179. NTFS: New Technology File System

(Operating systems) (Microsoft)


180. OAS: Office Automation System


181. OCN: Operating Company Number



182. OCR: Optical Character Recognition


183. ODBC: Open DataBase Connectivity

(Software) (Microsoft)


184. ODBMS: Object DataBase Management System

(Data bases)


185. ODD: Optical Disk Drive

Computer CD-Rom, DVD-Rom, DVD-Writer, etc (Hardware)


186. ODE: Object Database and Environment


187. OLAP: On-Line Analytical Processing

A category of software tools that provides analysis of data stored in a database (Databases)


188. OLED: Organic Light Emitting Diode



189. OOAD: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design


190. 00DB: Object-Oriented Data Base


191. OODBMS: Object-Oriented Data Base Management System


192. OOL: Object-Oriented Language


193. OOPL: Object-Oriented Programming Language



194. OOPS: Object-Oriented Programming System


195. OOPSLA: Object-Oriented Programming Systems and Language Architecture


196. OPI: Open Press Interface



197. ORDBMS: Object Relational DataBase Management System



198. OS: Operating System

A collection of programs that monitor the use of the system and supervise the other programs executed by it (Operating systems)


199. OSD: On-Screen Display



200. OSDN: Open Source Development Network



201. OSQL: Object Structured Query Language


202. p: Pico

Prefix for 10 power -12


203. P&D: Plug S Display



204. P2P: Peer To Peer


205. PAB: Personal Address Book


206. PABX: Private Automatic Branch exchange



207. PAL: Phase Alternate Line

European TV standard. A composite color standard similar to NTSC, except that the v-axis subcamer reference signal inverts in phase at the horizontal line rate


208. PCB: Printed Circuit Board



209. PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect

A 32-bit bus providing a maximum 132 Mbyte/sec data transfer rate. PCI devices have auto configuration capabilities and do not have to be configured by users (Hardware)


210. PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

An organization that supports several standards for a compact hardware interface that accepts a variety of devices (Organizations)


211. PCT: Private Communication Technology



212. PDA: Personal Digital Assistant


213. PHP: Php: Hypertext Preprocessor

Open-source general-purpose server-side scripting language that is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML. See also h (Software)


214. PICO: Pine COmposer

Simple, command line Unix text editor (Software)


215. PIPE: Private Internet Protocol Encapsulation

Extension of RFC 2003 (IP Encapsulation within IP) which avows to encapsulate and decapsulate private lP addresses in the same way as described in RFC 2003, and to transfer them across the public Internet (also referred to as “tunneling” in RFC 2003) (Network)


216. PnP: Plug aNd Play


217. POP: Power-On Password



218. POP2: Post Office Protocol 2



219. POP3: Post Office Protocol 3



220. P05: Packet Over Sonet



221. PRISM: PhofoRefractive Information Storage Materials



222. QD: Querty/Dvorak

Keyboard layout


223, QVGA: Quarter Video Graphic Array

Video specification for a resolution of 320 X 240 pixels used by Pocket PCs (Hardware)


224, PAD: Rapid Application Development



225. PAID: Redundant Array of Inexpensive (or Independent) Disks



22k. RAM: Random Access Memory



227. RDA: Remote Data Access


228. RDBMS: Relational DataBase Management System



229. RDBMS-MIB: Relational DataBase Management System – Management Information Base


230. RGB: Red Green Blue

The color systems obtain their colors through a direct combination of red, green, and blue components. The range of colors that can be displayed depends on the number of bits that have been assigned to each pixel (Hardware)


231. RND: RaNDom


232. ROM: Read Only Memory



233. RSS: Really Simple Syndication

Is an XML-based, universal way for developers to describe their sites and to make their content available to others (for example, for syndication)


234. SATA: Serial Advanced Technology Attachment

Peripheral bus architecture (Hardware)


235. SDLC: Software Development Life Cycle



236. SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory



237. SEQUEL: Structured English QUEry Language


238. SGRAM: Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory



239. SIMM: Single In line Memory Module

A circuit board that holds surface-mount memory chips. A SIMM is compact and efficient (Hardware)


240. SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The Internet email protocol, Defined in RFC 621. with associated message format descriptions in RFC 822


241. SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol



242. SOS: Silicon On Sapphire



243. SPID: Service Profile IDentifier



244. SQL: Structured Query Language

The international standard language for defining and accessing relational data bases (Data bases)


245. sRGB: Standard Red Green Blue



246. STAR: Self-defining Text Archival


247. STP: Secure Transfer Protocol


248. STR: Suspend To Ram

Power saving state


249. SVGA: Super Video Graphics Array

Video specification for a resolution of 800 X 600 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware)


250. SXGA: Super extended Graphics Array

Video specification for a resolution of 1280 X 1024 pixel (Hardware)


251. SXGA+: Super extended Graphics Array Plus

Video specification for a resolution of 1400 X 1050 pixels (Hardware)


252. TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

A communications protocol that ensures data is sent between computers on the Internet (Network)


253. TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol, Internet Protocol

The protocol suite originally developed for the Internet. Also called Internet Protocol suite (Network)


254. TELNET: Telephone Network


255. TFT: Thin Film Transistor

LCD monitors manufacturing technology (Hardware)


256. TIFF: Tagged Image

File Format File format for images


257. TWAIN: Toolkit Without An Important Name

Improperly expanded as shown, this term comes from Kipling’s ‘The Ballad of East and West” – “…and never the twain shall meet…” reflecting the difficulty of connecting digital imaging devices (like scanners) to personal computers.


258. TXD: Transmit Data


259. UAC: Universal Access Control


260. UAN: Universal Application Network

Standards-based, service-oriented architecture that enables organizations to solve the business integration problem within and beyond the enterprise (Software)


261. UHF: UltraHigh Frequency


262. UI: User Interface

(Operating systems)


263. UNICODE: UNIversal CODE


264. UPS: Uninten’uptible Power Supply



265. URL: Uniform Resource Locator

The set of URI schemes that have explicit instructions on how to access the resource on the internet. (Network)


26& USB: Universal Serial Bus



267. VAN: Virtual Access Network



268. VGA: Video Graphic Array

Video specification for a resolution of 640 X 480 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware)


269. VIRUS: Vital Information Resources Under Siege


270. VLAN: Virtual Local Area Network

A networking architecture that allows end-systems on topologically disconnected subnetworks to appear to be connected on the some LAN. Predominately used in reference to ATM networking. Similar in functionality to bridging (Network)


271. VM: Virtual Machine

(Operating systems)


272. VoIP: Voice Over Internet Protocol

A technology for transporting integrated digital voice, video, and data over IP networks (Network)


273. VOX: Voice Operated exchange

Voice operated transmission in radio telecommunication. When the device detects voice the transmission is connected (Communication)


274. VPN: Virtual Private Network

A network that functions as if it were private, though it exists on public wires. Data is protected through encryption and other security mechanisms (Network)


275. VRAM: Video Random Access Memory

A type of dynamic RAM (DRAM) used in high-speed graphics frame buffers, providing separate buses for the CPU and the frame buffer logic (Hardware)


276. VUI: Visual User interface

(Operating systems)


277. W3C: World Wide Web Consortium



278. WAN: Wide Area Network

A T1, T3, broadband, or other network covering an area generally larger than a city or metropolitan area network (Network)


279. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol


280. WHQL Windows Hardware Quality Labs


281. Wi-Fi: Wireless Fidelity

IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless network connectivity (Network)


282. WiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access

IEEE 802.16 broadband wireless access standard


283. WIMP: Windows, Icons. Menus and Pointing devices


284. WINSOCK: WiNdows SOCKets

(Operating systems)


285. WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network



286. WORM: Write Once Read Many



287. WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network



288. wpm: Words Per Minute

Speech recognition processing power (Software)


289. WRAM: Window Random Access Memory



290. WS: Web Services

Web-based enterprise applications that use open, XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. Also used to prefix web services interoperability applications or standards (Software)


291. WUXGA: Wide Ultra eXtended Graphics Array

Display adapter capable of a resolution of 1920 X 1200 pixel (Hardware)


292. WVGA: Wide Video Graphic Array

Video specification for resolution of 852 X 480 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware)


293. WWW: World Wide Web

The web of systems and the data in them that is the Internet (Network)


294. WXGA: Wide eXtended Graphics Array

Display adopter capable of a resolution of 1280 X 768 pixel (Hardware)


295. WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get


296. XGA: eXtended Graphics Array

Video specification for a resolution of 1024 X 768 pixels in 256 colors (Hardware)


297. XHTML: eXtensible HyperText Markup Language



298. XVGA: eXtended Video Graphics Array

Display standard (Hardware)


299. YTD: Year To Date

Time series function


300. ZIP: Zigzag Inline Package



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