by • 24/07/2011 • Old Pattern Biology NotesComments (0)678


It is largest gland, in the body. Its color is reddish brown. It lies just below the diaphragm on the right side of the body under the ribs. It has five lobes, three on the right side and two on the left. The cells of the liver secrete a greenish yellow alkaline fluid which is called the bile juice.

It contains bile salts and bile pigments which give greenish yellow color to the juice. Bile contains no digestive enzymes, but it does contain bile salts which break down the large molecules of fats to small fat droplets. This process is called emulsification. This process helps in the digestion of fats. Bile juice also contains bile pigments that are by products of red blood cells, these pigments are eliminated from the body along with the faeces, and the color of faeces is due to these pigments. Besides this, bile juice also kills the germs in the food.

Functions of Liver

1. Liver stores glycogen and regulates the level of glucose in the blood.

2. It breaks down excess amino acids. this process is called deamination.

3. It is involved in detoxification.

4. It produces and secretes bile juice which is stored in the gall bladder.

5. It metabolizes carbohydrates, fats, proteins and other compounds.

6. As a result of chemical changes a lot of heat is produced, therefore liver helps to keep the body warm.

7. It makes fibrinogen and other blood proteins.

8. It decomposes the damaged red blood cells.

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